Java instance variables,

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  1. An instance variable in Java is a type of variable that is declared in a class but outside of constructors, methods, or blocks. Instance variables are created when an object is instantiated, and they are specific to that object. Each object of the class has its own copy of the instance variable. This means that the value of the instance variable is unique to each instance of the class.

    Key Characteristics of Instance Variables:

    1. Object-specific: Instance variables hold values that are unique to each object.
    2. Scope: They can be accessed directly by any method of the class but not outside of the class.
    3. Lifetime: Their lifetime is tied to the object. When the object is destroyed, these variables are also destroyed.
    4. Default Values: They are assigned default values (0, null, or false) if not explicitly initialized.
    5. Modifiers: They can use access modifiers (private, protected, public) to specify the visibility level.

    Example:

    Here's a simple Java class to illustrate instance variables:

    public class Car {
        // Instance variables
        private String make;
        private String model;
        private int year;
    
        // Constructor to initialize instance variables
        public Car(String make, String model, int year) {
            this.make = make;
            this.model = model;
            this.year = year;
        }
    
        // Method to display car details
        public void displayDetails() {
            System.out.println("Car Make: " + make + ", Model: " + model + ", Year: " + year);
        }
    
        // Main method to create objects and use them
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            Car car1 = new Car("Toyota", "Camry", 2021);
            Car car2 = new Car("Honda", "Civic", 2020);
    
            car1.displayDetails(); // Displays details of car1
            car2.displayDetails(); // Displays details of car2
        }
    }
    

    In this example, make, model, and year are instance variables. Each Car object will have its own copy of these variables. The values of these variables are specific to each Car object, as demonstrated in the main method where two different Car objects are created with different values for these variables.

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