Function and usage of esc_attr_e() in wordpress


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    The esc_attr_e() function in WordPress is designed for localization and security. It ensures that any text output in an HTML attribute is properly translated and escaped, making it safe from potential security issues like cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.

    Function Signature

    esc_attr_e( string $text, string $domain = 'default' )

    Function Description

    • Purpose: esc_attr_e() is used to display translated text that has been escaped for safe use in an HTML attribute. This is crucial when you are dealing with dynamic data that needs to be placed inside attributes like value, title, or alt in HTML tags.

    • Encoding Handled: It encodes the following characters:

      • < (less than)
      • > (greater than)
      • & (ampersand)
      • " (double quote)
      • ' (single quote)

      This encoding ensures that the text can be safely placed within HTML attributes without breaking the HTML syntax or enabling XSS attacks.

    • Double Encoding: The function will not double encode entities. If the entities are already encoded, it will not encode them again.

    • Usage in PHP: If you need the value for use in PHP rather than directly outputting it to the HTML attribute, you should use esc_attr__() instead. This function returns the escaped value rather than echoing it.


    1. $text (string, required): The text that needs to be translated and escaped. This is the text that will be placed inside an HTML attribute.

    2. $domain (string, optional): The text domain. It is a unique identifier used to retrieve translated strings. The default value is 'default'.

    Sample Usage

    <input type="button" value="<?php esc_attr_e( 'Click Me', 'my-text-domain' ); ?>" />

    In this example, the esc_attr_e() function is used to translate and escape the string 'Click Me' for safe use in the value attribute of an input button. The text is also associated with a text domain 'my-text-domain', which is useful for localization purposes.

    Best Practices

    • Use for Dynamic Content: Particularly important when outputting dynamic content into HTML attributes to prevent XSS vulnerabilities.

    • Localization: Use the text domain parameter for translating strings in themes or plugins, making them ready for localization.

    • Avoid Over Escaping: Be mindful of the context in which you're using esc_attr_e(). It is specifically meant for HTML attributes and not for general text display.

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