Python exception handling.


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    In Python, exception handling is achieved through the use of try, except, else, and finally blocks. Here's a detailed description along with code examples:

    1. try Block: This is where you write code that might raise an exception. Python executes this block of code first.

    2. except Block: If an exception occurs in the try block, Python jumps to the except block. You can catch specific exceptions or handle all exceptions in a general manner.

    3. else Block (optional): If no exception occurs in the try block, the code inside the else block is executed. This block is often used for code that should run only if the try block was successful and didn't throw an exception.

    4. finally Block (optional): This block is executed no matter what, whether an exception occurred or not. It's typically used for cleaning up resources, like closing files or network connections.

    Example Code:

        # Code that might raise an exception
        result = 10 / 0
    except ZeroDivisionError:
        # Handling a specific exception
        print("Division by zero is not allowed.")
    except Exception as e:
        # Handling any other exceptions
        print(f"An error occurred: {e}")
        # Code to execute if no exceptions are raised
        print("Operation successful.")
        # Code that should run regardless of exceptions
        print("Execution complete.")

    In this example, dividing by zero will raise a ZeroDivisionError, which is specifically caught in the except block.

    Handling Multiple Exceptions:

    You can handle multiple specific exceptions by mentioning them in a tuple:

        # Some code
    except (TypeError, ValueError) as e:
        # Handling multiple exceptions
        print(f"An error occurred: {e}")

    Custom Exceptions:

    You can also define custom exceptions by extending the Exception class. This is useful for creating exceptions that are specific to your application's domain.

    Best Practices:

    • Catch specific exceptions instead of using a general except: block. This helps in accurately handling errors and not masking other issues.
    • Use the finally block for cleanup tasks, like releasing resources.
    • Be cautious with the use of else block; it's not always needed.
    • When creating custom exceptions, inherit from Exception or its subclasses, not BaseException.

    Python's exception handling mechanism is powerful and flexible, allowing for robust error handling and recovery in applications.

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